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CSO 101

APA Examples

The following are examples of APA references of various works. When citing a source all works should include a parenthetical (in-text) citation in your text along with a corresponding citation in your reference list. All references consist of four components listed below:

  • Author - the person, persons, and/or group responsible for the work
  • Date - the date the work was published (or the indicator “n.d.” if no date of publication is available)
  • Title - the title of the work being cited
  • Source - the location where readers can retrieve the cited work


Zhou, W., Yang, L., Cai, Y., & Ying, T. (2018). Dynamic programming for new energy vehicles based on their work modes part I: Electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Journal of Power Sources, 406, 151-166.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Zhou et al., 2018)
  • Narrative citation: Zhou et al. (2018)

Book example

Bartsch, R. (2018). International aviation law: A practical guide (2nd ed.). Routledge.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Bartsch, 2018)
  • Narrative citation: Bartsch (2018)

Edited Book Chapter example

Müller, V.C. (2023). Ethics of artificial intelligence. In A. Elliot (Ed.), The routledge social science handbook of ai (pp. 122-137). Routledge.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Müller, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Müller (2019)


Stierhoff, K.L., Zwolinksi, J.P., & Demer, D.A. (2019). Distribution, biomass, and demography of coastal pelagic fishes in california current ecosystems during summer 2018 based on acoustic-trawl sampling (Report No. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-613). U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Stierhoff et al., 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Stierhoff et al. (2019)


Federal Aviation Administration. (2022, November 10). Operations over people general overview. U.S. Department of Transportation.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Federal Aviation Administration, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Federal Aviation Administration (2019)

For a page on a government website without individual authors, use the specific agency responsible for the webpage as the author while the names of parent agencies not present in the author element appear in the source element.


Fuel Requirements for Flight in IFR Conditions, 14 C.F.R. §91.167 (2000).

  • Parenthetical citation: (Fuel Requirements for Flight in IFR Conditions, 2000)
  • Narrative citation: Fuel Requirements for Flight in IFR Conditions (2000)


Bureau of Transportation Statistics. (2017). Air passenger travel departures from the United States to selected foreign countries [Data set]. United States Department of Transportation.

  • Parenthetical citation: (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 2019)
  • Narrative citation: Bureau of Transportation Statistics (2019)


OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].

  • Parenthetical citation: (Open AI, 2023)
  • Narrative citation: OpenAI (2023)